UNDERSTANDING THE STANDARD what's this
- uppercase letters
QUESTIONS TO FOCUS INSTRUCTION what's this
- Failure to understand the organization and basic features of print prevents or limits success in learning to read.
- Children with print awareness can begin to understand that written language is related to oral language.
- Understanding the basics of how text is organized is a prerequisite skill to being able to understand the organization of more complex narrative and information texts across grades and subjects.
- Not knowing letter names is related to children's difficulty in learning letter sounds and in recognizing words.
- Difficulty understanding the organization and basic features of print may be an early warning sign that the child has vision or cognitive issues that affect learning.
- Kindergarten students who understand the organization and basic features of print can demonstrate, using a pointer and a big book, how to follow print text from left to right, top to bottom and page to page.
- Kindergarten students who understand the organization and basic features of print can orally recognize rhymes and non-rhymes when given two words (e.g., “Raise your hand if the two words I say rhyme: red/bed; boy/store; ear/near.”) and, then, when given a series of words – even a name of a classmate (e.g., “Hold up your green “go” card when I say a word that rhymes with Carley’s name. If I say a word that does not rhyme, don’t hold up the card. Which of the following rhyme with Carley?” = smarley, tarley, garing, darley, lazy or “-rhyme with pit?” = sit, cat, knit, not, fit, Jim, cap, kit, mit, hit?).
- Kindegarten students can recognize when the beginning sound of a series of words is the same (alliteration) such as “Peter Piper picked a peck of pickled peppers”, “Annie, an amazing ant” or “Susie sees six snakes”.
- Kindergarten students are able to demonstrate they understand that words are separated by spaces in print by pointing to words (and underlining or highlighting words) and then pointing to spaces between words using big books and, later, decodable text.
- Kindergarten students who understand the organization and basic features of print can tell the teacher the number of words in a brief sentence when they hear the sentence orally.
- When given a brief written sentence of 3-5 words, kindergarten students can correctly mark each word using chips or other devices.
- Kindergarten students who understand the organization and basic features of print can recognize and name all upper and lower case letters of the alphabet. They can do this quickly and fluently.
- Kindergarten students who understand the organization and basic features of print understand the following academic vocabulary terms: words, letters, spaces, right, left, top, bottom, rhyme, alphabet, big books, and sentence.
SAMPLE PERFORMACE TASKS
Why is letter naming fluency (the ability to name all letters of the alphabet, both upper and lower case fluently) critical to the development of reading skills? (According to Vaughn and Linan-Thompson is their book, Research-based Methods of Reading Instruction, K-3, letter naming is strongly related to the ability to remember the shapes of written, treat words as a sequence of letters, and associate letters with their corresponding sounds words
- What pre-requisite skills and understandings related to language do kindergarten students need in order to understand the organization and basic features of print (i.e., the ladder of phoneme awareness)? (Refer to the article, The Development of Phonological Skills at the Reading Rocket website for further information).
- How does the use of songs, games, role playing, and movement to build an understanding of the organization and basic features of print support motivation and learning?
- How can environmental print be used to help students understand the organization and basic features of print?
- Why is it important for students to understand that words in print are separated by spaces? How can the teacher use materials such as big books to help students recognize that words make up print and words, in print, are separated by spaces?
- What role does orally teaching and practicing word families have in helping students understand that spoken words are represented by a sequence of letters (e.g. mat, fat, sat, sip, hip, lip, mop, pop, hop).
- What read aloud books help children practice word family repetitions, rhyming, alliteration and onset-rime activities?
- How does the ability to hear and recognize rhymes (such as “Jack and Jill – went up the hill) affect a student’s ability to master phonemic awareness and his/her ability to learn to read?
- How can teachers use big books and read alouds to help students understand that reading text requires that they follow words from left to right, top to bottom, and page by page?
- What strategies and materials support student recognition and naming of letters, both lower and upper case? How can letter naming fluency be assessed? (To screen for or quickly assess various foundational reading skills, link to the online PALS: Phonological Awareness Literacy Screening provided by the Curry School of Education at the University of Virginia)
- What read aloud books help children practice phrase repetitions, rhyming, and alliteration?
- Where can I find additional information on the Common Core Standards Reading Foundational Skills? (Go Appendix A, pages 17-22)
- What academic vocabulary terms should students learn as they work to meet this standard?
- Why is the ability to understand how print is organized important to learning to read?
- What roles do oral language development and listening skills play in teaching concepts of print?
– As students read a nursery rhyme (or poem) from a chart in the front of the class, choose a student to come up and follow the words from left to right with a pointer.
Link to the pre-school section of this toolkit to find additional information on concepts of print.
Go to RF.1.1
to see the progression of related skills.