Determine or clarify the meaning of unknown and multiple-meaning words and phrases based on kindergarten reading and content.
  - Identify new meanings for familiar words and apply them accurately (e.g., knowing
duck is a bird and  learning the verb to duck).
  - Use the most frequently occurring inflections and affixes (e.g., -ed, -s, re-, un-, pre-, -ful, -less) as a clue to the meaning of an unknown word.


  • noun 
  • affixes 
  • similar/different 
  • multiple-meaning words

  • verb 
  • prefix 
  • root word 
  • homophone

  • inflections 
  • suffix 
  • base word 
  • homograph 

  • Students must acquire flexible strategies for applying known word parts to new words in a variety of texts.
  • The Students can read and write a broad repertoire of word by acquiring the ability to combine parts of words to form new one 
  • A solid understanding of how the English language works facilitates reading, writing, and vocabulary development in all subject areas. 
  • Reading comprehension increases when students are able to determine the most appropriate meaning of a word for a particular context.
  • Kindergarteners understand that words are made up of sounds and, so, when faced with an unknown word, they use this knowledge to segment sounds and then blend sounds to identify the word.
  • Kindergarten students know how to combine word parts to make new words. They can identify word parts. To clarify the meaning of unknown words, they determine the meaning of the parts in the word and “put” these together to attempt to understand the unknown word.
  • Kindergarten students understand new vocabulary when teachers pre-teach vocabulary for read-alouds and decodable books.
  • Kindergarten students find that the use of graphic organizers (such as semantic webs) helps them understand the meanings that prefixes and suffixes add to words.
  • Kindergarteners understand that words can have prefixes and suffixes. When faced with an unknown word that contains affixes they recognize, they look for the base word (root word) and determine its meaning and then use known affixes as clues to the meaning of the unknown word (e.g., They know the word “like” means the same as (e.g., the ice cream tastes like peppermint candy” and can figure out that “unlike” means not like something --- ducks, unlike chickens, can swim.
  • When kindergarteners hear a word that they don’t know, they listen to the words around the unknown word and they look at illustrations to help them clarify the meaning of the word.
  •  Kindergarten students know how to ask and answer questions about the text or about the word that help them understand unknown words and how words in text supply meaning.
  • With teacher prompting and support, kindergarteners can identify new meanings for familiar words and, then, use these new meanings during oral discussions and in their writing (e.g., bat is used in baseball, but in the read-aloud, Stellaluna, a bat is a flying mammal similar to, but not exactly like, a bird).
  • When orally presented with frequently used and familiar multiple meaning words, kindergarteners can identify the difference in meanings and demonstrate this by correctly using the words in a sentence or phrase.
  • Kindergarten students understand the concept of multiple meaning words; they are familiar with and have a working knowledge of the terms: prefix, suffix, affix, base (or root) word, similar, different, noun, and verb.

  • How does knowledge of word parts (e.g. root words, affixes) support vocabulary development? 
  • How does the ability to hear the parts of a word (clap syllables) facilitate students’ skills in identifying root words and affixes? 
  • What do teachers need to know about the structure of the English language in order to best support students in their language development? 
  • What strategies support students in making connections from known words to new words? 
  • What strategies support very young students in learning multiple meanings for the same word? 
  • How can pictures, illustrations, or movement help kindergarteners build vocabulary knowledge.
  • How can vocabulary development routinely be an integral part of read-alouds and oral discussion within the classroom?


Go to L.1.4 to see the progression of related skills.