Demonstrate command of the conventions of standard English capitalization, punctuation, and spelling when writing.
  - Capitalize the first word in a sentence and the pronoun
  - Recognize and name end punctuation.
  - Write a letter or letters for most consonant and short-vowel sounds (phonemes).
  - Spell simple words phonetically, drawing on knowledge of sound-letter relationships.



  • Exclamation point
  • Letter
  • Period

  • Punctuation
  • Question mark
  • Sentence
  • Word

  • Support children’s growing understanding of punctuation, capitalization and spelling through modeling and scaffolding activities and “teachable moments” during child-initiated and independent writing experiences.
  • During teacher-lead and child-initiated writing activities, such as during journal writing time, support children’s use of letter-sound correspondence.
  • Language conventions are treated in their own strand not because skills in these areas should be handled in isolation but because their use extends across reading, writing, speaking, and listening.
  • Kindergarten children who learn letter names and shapes, can also learn to write these letters in manuscript.
  • Kindergarten children who can name letters automatically and fluently use that knowledge to link the sounds of the letters with the letter names.
  • Kindergarten students who know the sounds of frequently used consonants and short vowel sounds can manipulate those individual sounds (phonemes) in one-syllable CVC words using various techniques (i.e., blending, segmenting, isolating, deleting, and substituting phonemes).
  • Kindergarten students who master phoneme manipulation, particularly segmenting and blending, are able to blend phonemes together to make words and pull phonemes apart to determine the individual sounds in words.
  • Kindergarten students who can blend the sounds of letters together to make simple words can spell those words. Students can demonstrate they are able to spell words by orally spelling words dictated by the teacher. Students can also write words dictated, thus demonstrating they are able to write consonants and vowels.
  • Kindergarten students recognize that ending punctuation comes at the end of a sentence. These students also know that sentences begin with a capital (upper-case letter). They demonstrate this by pointing out end punctuation and capital letters in big books during shared reading, during read alouds, and in morning meeting and other classroom activities. They also appropriately use capital letters and punctuation in their writing.
  • Kindergarten students who are able to recognize end punctuation, can explain why a particular end punctuation is used.
  • Kindergarten students know and are able to use academic vocabulary such as question mark, exclamation point, period, capital letter, consonant, vowel, and sentence, blending, and segmenting.

  • What are the most effective ways to help students learn all the sounds of consonants and short sounds of vowels?
  • What pre-requisite skills must students have if they are to master the letter-sound (phoneme-grapheme) relationships?
  • What strategies are most effective in supporting students learning to manipulate phonemes in order to sound out and spell words.
  • What are effective strategies and activities that help students learn to identify a period, question mark, or exclamation point in a sentence as well as use capital letters and punctuation marks in their writing?
  • What is the role of questioning and teacher-modeling in helping students recognize and use correct punctuation, capital letters at the beginning of words and a capital I when reading and in their writing.
  • What academic vocabulary must kindergarteners know in order to meet this standard: (i.e., question mark, exclamation point, period, capital letter, consonant, vowel, and sentence, blending, and segmenting.


Go to L.1.2 to see the progression of related skills.