Demonstrate command of the conventions of standard English grammar and usage when writing or speaking.
  - Print many upper- and lowercase letters.

  - Use frequently occurring nouns and verbs.
  - Form regular plural nouns orally by adding /s/ or /es/ (e.g., dog, dogs; wish, wishes).
  - Understand and use question words (interrogatives) (e.g., who, what, where, when, why, how).
  - Use the most frequently occurring prepositions (e.g., to, from, in, out, on, off, for, of, by, with).
  - Produce and expand complete sentences in shared language activities.



  • conventions
  • nouns
  • interrogatives
  • uppercase
  • verbs
  • prepositions
  • lowercase
  • plural

  • complete
  • letters
  • question words
  • sentences


  • Multiple opportunities to print upper and lower-case letters and to practice oral language (through shared language activities, songs, dramatic play, etc.) will give students the foundational skills needed to effectively express themselves through written language.
  • Shared language activities and producing complete sentences will support oral language development, vocabulary acquisition, writing skills, and speaking and listening standards across grade levels.
  • Understanding nouns, verbs, plurals, interrogatives, and prepositions, and how they are used will help students expand the complexity of their sentences and add descriptive words to their vocabulary and writing.
  • Mastering the conventions of standard English grammar will help students master academic language and vocabulary across all content areas, including math, science, and social studies, and support their overall academic achievement.
  • As students learn to recognize the names and shapes of upper and lower case letters, they use this knowledge to learn to print manuscript letters. Learning the name, shape and written form of letters strengthens students’ letter naming ability.
  • When given regular CVC nouns (including nouns with blends CCVC or digraphs) orally and asked to make them plural, kindergarteners are able to correctly perform this task. When given a series of words orally, they are able to determine which ones are singular and which are plural.
  • Kindergarteners demonstrate their ability to use frequently occurring nouns and verbs as they participate in collaborative discussions and other shared language activities and as they ask questions and give answers during class activities such as morning meetings and read alouds. They also demonstrate their ability to use frequently occurring nouns and verbs as they attempt to include these words in print.
  • Kindergarten students know that questions begin with the 5 W and 1 H words (who, what, when, where, why, and how. They demonstrate this knowledge during class discussions, while reading big books, when working in small groups, when participating in discussions following read alouds, and so forth. Kindergarten students begin to recognize these words in print and come to understand that questions in print end with a question mark.
  • During shared language activities, teachers use “questioning” words to support and scaffold student use of complete sentences; teachers set the expectations that “this is a whole sentence class”. Kindergarten students learn to recognize when sentences are complete and when they are not. They demonstrate this recognition as they routinely produce complete sentences that contain nouns and verbs and describing words as well as the most frequently occurring prepositions (e.g., to, from, in, out, on, off, for, of, by, with)
  • Students practice reflect their expanding oral language skills in their writing as they attempt to use their names as well as recognized CVC nouns, verbs and prepositions in written form along with drawings to express thoughts.
  • Kindergarteners acquire academic vocabulary words that enable them to understand and discuss upper and lower case letters, shapes of letters (curved/straight), nouns, verbs, question words, who, what, when, where, why, how, plural (more than one), print, nouns, verbs.


  • How is letter naming fluency strengthened through learning the shapes of the letters and, then, learning how to print them?
  • What activities help students expand their vocabulary so that they are able to use a variety of nouns, verbs and prepositions when speaking with others?
  • How do the reading foundation standards support early learning of English language grammar?
  • What are the most frequently used letters of the alphabet? Is it important that kindergarteners learn the names of those letters and how to print them before learning those letters used less frequently?
  • How can instruction in kindergarten level conventions of standard English grammar be incorporated into daily activities such as morning meeting, center work, following directions, going to special areas or the lunch room, and recess?
  • What is the role of questioning and teacher-modeling in helping students routinely produce complete sentences when engaged in classroom language experiences?
  • What academic vocabulary must kindergarteners know in order to meet this standard: (e.g., nouns, verbs, complete sentences, questioning and question words (5W’s & 1 H), plural, upper and lower case, curved lines, straight lines)?
  • What strategies can be used to help students incorporate and correctly use conventions, such as nouns and verbs, plurals, questions words, prepositions, and expanded complete sentences, in their oral and written language? (i.e., How can big books, word walls, read alouds and similar activities be used to support the language development and knowledge of kindergarteners?)
  • What additional instructional support can be provided for students who struggle with understanding the conventions of standard English grammar?


Go to L.1.1 to see the progression of related skills.