Write routinely over extended time frames (time for research, reflection, and revision) and shorter time frames (a single sitting or a day or two) for a range of discipline-specific tasks, purposes, and audiences.



  • writing process
  • research
  • reflection
  • revise/edit

  • purposes for writing
  • audience
  • opinion/persuasive writing
  • explanatory/informative writing

  • narrative writing
  • writing arguments
  • plan (planning)
  • topic

what's this
  • Writing in response to reading or problem solving is an important instructional strategy in all content areas at all grades levels. (e.g., math journals, informative pieces related to science and technical subjects, opinion pieces in social studies, and narrative writing that builds on literature).
  • Reading and writing are connected throughout grades 3-12 as students draw upon and write about evidence from narrative and expository texts.
  • Writing skills, such as the ability to plan, revise, edit, and publish, are applicable to many types of writing across grades and content areas.
  • The ability to write for specific purposes (e.g., writing arguments or opinions; providing information, explanations, or descriptions, and writing stories or writing about stories) supports an increasingly wider range of writing and higher levels of writing complexity as students move through grades 3-12.
  • The centrality of writing to most forms of inquiry requires that students learn and use increasingly sophisticated research skills.
  • Expanding the range of writing requires vocabulary knowledge and mastery of English language conventions at the appropriate grade level.
  • Writing supports thinking skill development (analytical, creative, research, and practical) across grade levels and content areas.

  • How does recognizing different purposes an author has for writing support a wider range of writing for students?
  • What techniques can be used to teach or review the different purposes (types) of writing (i.e., informative/explanatory, persuasive/argumentative, and narrative)
  • What writing process skills must students demonstrate mastery over if they are to write a piece in a single setting as well as over extended time frames?
  • Are students able to describe the difference between writing skills and writing types (i.e., writing genres)?
  • What techniques can teachers use to scaffold writing instruction so that third grade students can routinely and, often, independently write in response to assigned topics, in response to reading, and for personal reasons?
  • What role does knowledge of main idea, details, English language conventions, vocabulary, and question asking/answering play in writing?
  • In what ways does instruction in thinking skills (analytical, inquiry (research), creative, and practical) support the development of a student’s range of writing.