Demonstrate command of the conventions of standard English capitalization, punctuation, and spelling when writing.

(a). Capitalize appropriate words in titles.
(b). Use commas in addresses.
(c). Use commas and quotation marks in dialogue.
(d). Form and use possessives.
(e). Use conventional spelling for high-frequency and other studied words and for adding suffixes to base words (e.g., sitting, smiled, cries, happiness).
(f). Use spelling patterns and generalizations (e.g., word families, position-based spellings, syllable patterns, ending rules, meaningful word parts) in writing words.
(g). Consult reference materials, including beginning dictionaries, as needed to check and correct spellings.


  • Apostrophe
  • Base Word
  • Capitalization
  • Comma

  • Dialogue
  • Possessive
  • Quotation Marks
  • Reference Materials

  • Spelling Patterns
  • Suffix
  • Syllable
  • Word Families
  • Students can begin to learn the basic functions of capitalization during shared reading and writing lessons and practice capitalization in small group and independent activities.
  • Punctuation is used to aid the smooth reading of texts. Writers use punctuation as a powerful tool in shaping meaning in writing.
  • Students can begin working with the use of dialogue by reviewing written text, such as reader’s theater, in order to use quotation marks and commas correctly in written activities. Explicit, contextual discussion and practice in reading and writing across the curriculum will further develop this language skill.
  • Use glossaries and dictionaries, both print and digital, to determine and clarify word spellings.
  • Possessive nouns show that a person, animal, place, thing, or idea has or owns something. Include possessive contractions as part of spelling lists and student writing.
  • Spelling with word families and syllable patterns helps children make connections in both reading and writing. Learning how and why certain patterns are used and then practicing these common patterns will allow students to develop spelling and writing skills.
  • To improve and develop their spelling and writing, children must develop an interest in words and learn about the way words are built up using syllables, word families, and basic spelling patterns of English.
  • When teaching reading, one goal is to make high frequency words instantly recognizable. But since most high frequency words are decodable, a good way to make them recognizable is to at first teach children to decode them instead of using just strict memorization. As students practice their word analysis skills, their abilities to instantly recognize these words will increase. Eventually, high frequency words become sight words for students.

  • Do my students recognize and use capitalization in titles?
  • Can students correctly use commas in addresses?
  • Are students using apostrophes and contractions while spelling?
  • Are students recognizing and using dialogue appropriately with commas and quotation marks?
  • Do I model the use of spelling patterns and generalizations during shared writing activities and then encourage students to use these conventions as they write including checking their spelling with appropriate reference materials?
  • Do students use conventional spelling for high-frequency words and other studied words?
  • Do students use language conventions independently or when working in learning stations?


Go to L.2.2 to see skills mastered prior to this.