- word analysis
- long vowel
- spelling-sound correspondence
- short vowels
UNDERSTANDING THE STANDARD what's this
QUESTIONS TO FOCUS INSTRUCTION what's this
- Students who have not mastered phonemic awareness will experience difficulty mapping sounds (phonemes) to letters (graphemes).
- Fluent reading depends on the ability to decode and use other word analysis skills.
- Comprehension depends on fluent reading.
- Failure to acquire basic phonics and word analysis skills limits the opportunities for students to build vocabulary and develop concepts when reading both narrative and informational texts.
- Basic word analysis undergirds advanced word study which is necessary for reading and understanding increasingly complex content area texts across grade levels.
- Difficulties acquiring phonics and word analysis skills can often be remediated with appropriate, focused, and intensive early intervention instruction.
- Second grade students demonstrate they know and can apply phonics and word analysis skills to decoding words by correctly distinguishing between long and short vowels when reading regularly spelled one syllable words (e.g., The students know that clock and pump have the short vowel sound and that rain and seed have the long vowel sound). Students who can distinguish between long and short vowel sounds can also demonstrate this ability by sorting word cards into long and short vowel categories.
- Second grade students learned vowel teams such as ee, oa, ai, and ea before the end of first grade. In the second grade, students are able to use spelling-sound correspondences for additional vowel teams including ay, e_e, igh, ie, ow, aw, au, oo, oi, oy, and ue. They demonstrate their ability in this area by decoding single syllable words with these newly acquired vowel teams such as day, pie, mow, glue, raw, soot, taught, and moon and with diphthongs such as soy, oil, and loud. They are able to correctly sort word and picture cards into various vowel team headings provided by the teacher.
- Students demonstrate they know and can apply phonics and word analysis skills at the second grade level by correctly decoding two syllable words with long vowels and words with prefixes and suffixes.
- Students recognize that a two syllable word may have one syllable with a short vowel and one with a long vowel or two with long vowels. When decoding these two syllable words, they are able to identify the verbs and circle the syllables in which the verbs appear. They then look for clues to identify the long vowel syllables and ask themselves questions such as “Does this syllable contain a vowel team?” “Is this syllable an open syllable?” Does this syllable contain the VC-silent e. After determining whether the vowel in each syllable is long or short, they use their knowledge of consonant and vowel sounds to decode each syllable and blend the syllables into a single word.
- Second grade students can explain the six syllable types and give examples of each (i.e, open, closed, VC-e, vowel pairs, r-controlled, consonant-le)
- Second grade students understand that many words are made up of prefixes and suffixes. They have previously learned inflectional endings. Now they use that prior knowledge of suffixes in addition to learning common prefixes (un, re, in, dis) to decode words such as undo, reread, and untie as well as untied, rereading, and rereads. As they decode these words, they discuss, with prompting and support, the new meanings that the prefixes and suffixes provide. Second grade students recognize that suffixes and prefixes build new meanings and help them expand their vocabulary.
- Second grade students demonstrate they know and can apply phonics and word analysis skills by identifying and reading grade-appropriate words with inconsistent but common spelling correspondences in random order from word cards.
- Second grade students who know and can apply phonics and word analysis skills are able to recognize and correctly read grade-appropriate irregularly spelled words such as because, does, and enough randomly from word cards and, then, correctly when they “meet” these words in print.
- While gaining the ability to apply grade level phonics and word attack skills in decoding words, second grade students have added to their academic vocabulary. They have learned words that begin and end with prefixes or suffixes and know what those terms mean. They have added new vowel pairs to their repertoire and have learned additional words that contain those new vowel pairs.
- What are the most common high frequency and irregular words that second graders should be able to recognize?
- What prefixes and suffixes should second graders learn and be able to use? What are the most common prefixes and suffixes?
- Why is it important for second graders to have a word attack strategy for decoding multiple syllable words with both long and short vowel syllables? Are there strategies, games, and books that help second graders with this task.
- What types of instructional strategies support the development of phonics and word analysis skills at the second grade level?
- How important is the ability to determine word parts (prefixes, suffixes (word endings) and root words) to reading and vocabulary development?
- What resources and materials are recommended for teachers who wish to improve their knowledge of and ability to teach phonics and word analysis skills at the first grade level? Does the school’s library provide a professional book section (Refer to the Center On Instruction’s web resource, Building the Foundation: A Suggested Progression of Sub-skills to Achieve the Reading Standards: Foundational Skills in the Common Core State Standards at Building the Foundation and to pages 17-22 in Appendix A of the Common Core Standards document Appendix A.
- How can teachers effectively assess mastery of phonics and word analysis skills at the second grade level?
- What academic vocabulary terms should students be familiar with as they work to meet this standard?
Go to RF.1.3 to see skills mastered prior to this.
Go to RF.3.3 to see the progression of related skills.