Demonstrate command of the conventions of standard English capitalization, punctuation, and spelling when writing.

- Capitalize holidays, product names, and geographic names.
- Use commas in greetings and closings of letters.
- Use an apostrophe to form contractions and frequently occurring possessives.
- Generalize learned spelling patterns when writing words (e.g., cage → badge; boy → boil).
- Consult reference materials, including beginning dictionaries, as needed to check and correct spellings.



  • Apostrophe
  • Capitalization
  • Comma
  • Contraction

  • Exclamation point
  • Possessive
  • Reference Materials
  • Spelling Patterns

  • Punctuation is used to aid the smooth reading of texts. Writers use punctuation as a powerful tool in shaping meaning. A lack of punctuation or misused punctuation can lead to misunderstanding and confusion.
  • Learning how and why certain patterns are used and then practicing these common patterns will allow students to develop spelling and writing skills. We begin by teaching the most reliable patterns and move to those that are less reliable over time. In the learning stages, it is very important to teach spelling using decodable words grouped together by spelling pattern. By teaching these patterns to students, we can help them develop language skills.
  • Use glossaries and dictionaries, both print and digital, to determine and clarify word spellings.
  • Viewing and analyzing the use of contractions in reading and writing assists students by demonstrating the correct use of contractions, identifying the correct use of contractions, and identifying where they should not be used.
  • Include possessive and abbreviation contractions as part of spelling lists.
  • Students can begin to learn the basic functions of capitalization during shared reading and writing lessons and practice capitalization in small group activities.

what's this 
  • Do my students recognize and use capitalization for holidays, product names, and geographic names?
  • Can students correctly use commas in letters?
  • Are students using apostrophes and contractions while spelling?
  • Do I model the use of spelling patterns during shared writing activities and then encourage students to use these conventions as they write including checking their spelling with appropriate reference materials?
  • Do students use language conventions independently or when working in learning stations?


Go to L.1.2 to see skills mastered prior to this.

Go to L.3.2 to see the progression of related skills.