UNDERSTANDING THE STANDARD what's this
- word analysis
- vowel teams
- spelling-sound correspondence
- high frequency
- word patterns
- inflectional endings
QUESTIONS TO FOCUS INSTRUCTION what's this
- Students who have not mastered phonemic awareness will experience difficulty mapping sounds (phonemes) to letters (graphemes).
- Fluent reading depends on the ability to decode and use other word analysis skills.
- Comprehension depends on fluent reading.
- Failure to acquire basic phonics and word analysis skills limits the opportunities for students to build vocabulary and develop concepts when reading both narrative and informational texts.
- Basic word analysis undergirds advanced word study which is necessary for reading and understanding increasingly complex content area texts across grade levels.
- Difficulties acquiring phonics and word analysis skills can often be remediated with appropriate, focused, and intensive early intervention instruction.
- First grade students are able to determine the number of
syllables in a word using their knowledge that every syllable must have a
vowel. For example, students can clap the number of syllables in their
own name and identify the vowels; students can circle the vowels in
words provided and, from that, determine the number of syllables.
- First grade students know three of six syllable types. They
recognize that an open syllable ends in a vowel and the vowel is usually
long (me, go) and that a closed syllable ends in a consonant and the
vowel has a short sound (fan, hop). They understand that the final e in a
VC-e syllable makes the vowel have a long sound (cake, hope).
- First grade students use the strategy of breaking
multi-syllable words into syllables in order to decode the word. They
find the vowels and, then, circle the syllables in which the vowel
appears. After decoding each syllable, they blend the syllables
together to decode the entire word.
- First grade students recognize common inflectional endings such
as –ed, -s, -ing, -est, -er and can read words when these endings have
been added (e.g., long, longest; boat, boats; jump, jumping; play,
- When given cards with first grade appropriate irregular words
(such as could, walk, once), first graders are able to read them.
- First grade students who know and can apply grade level phonics
and word attack skills in decoding words have learned the following
academic vocabulary terms vowel pairs, VC-e or silent e, syllables,
syllable types, open syllable, closed syllable, word (inflectional)
endings, irregular, suffixes.
- First grade students who know and can apply phonics and word analysis skills in decoding words
- know the spelling and sound correspondence for common digraphs (i.e., th, ch, sh, wh, ph, ng, kn, and ck)
- can explain the difference between a digraph and a blend and can provide examples of each (i.e., blends such as string (s-t-r – ing) , clean (c-l – ean), most (mo–s-t), chip (ch-ip), this )th-is) milk (mi – lk); chip
- can decode regularly spelled one syllable words such as
- i. VC words (am); CVC words (map) VCC words (ask)
- ii. VCC words (must; lamp) CCVC words (stop) VC-long e (kite, plane)
- iii. Words with digraphs (sting, chop, rush, sing)
- know and use the vowel-consonant-silent e and other common vowel conventions for representing long sounds such as ee (seed), oa (boat), ai (rain), ea (eat)
- How important is the ability to recognize and decode word parts (such as inflectional endings) to both reading and vocabulary development?
- What is the appropriate sequence for teaching phonics and word analysis skills?
- How do phonics and word analysis skills support a child’s ability to learn to read print?
- How important is the ability to determine word parts (prefixes, suffixes (word endings) and root words) to both fluent reading and vocabulary development?
- What role does the student’s knowledge of and ability to apply grade-level phonics and word analysis skills in decoding words play as students develop reading fluency?
- What is the impact of a student’s knowledge of and ability to apply grade-level phonics and word analysis skills in decoding words on his/her ability to comprehend what is read?
- What affect does the ability to analyze and decode words have on a student’s vocabulary development?
- What is the correct pronunciation of the sounds of each consonant and vowel? (See Appendix A, pages 17-18)
- What are the most common high frequency and irregular words that first graders should be able to recognize?
- How important are syllables and syllable types to the ability to decode and read words?
- What types of instructional strategies and materials support the development of phonics and word analysis skills? Are there songs, games, read-aloud books, decodable books, and movement activities that support the teaching of phonics and word analysis skills?
- What must teachers be aware of when determining an appropriate sequence for teaching phonics and word analysis?
- What resources and materials are recommended for teachers who wish to improve their knowledge of and ability to teach phonics and word analysis skills at the first grade level? Does the school’s library provide a professional book section (Refer to the Center On Instruction’s web resource, Building the Foundation: A Suggested Progression of Sub-skills to Achieve the Reading Standards: Foundational Skills in the Common Core State Standards at Building the Foundation and to pages 17-22 in Appendix A of the Common Core Standards document Appendix A.
- How can teachers effectively assess mastery of phonics and word analysis skills? (To screen for or quickly assess various foundational reading skills, link to the online PALS: Phonological Awareness Literacy Screening provided by the Curry School of Education at the University of Virginia – PALS)
- What academic vocabulary terms should students learn as they work to meet this standard?
Go to RF.K.3
to see skills mastered prior to this.
Go to RF.2.3
to see the progression of related skills.