UNDERSTANDING THE STANDARD what's this
- blend (blending)
- consonant blends
- segment (segmenting)
- initial sound
- medial sound vowel
- final sound
QUESTIONS TO FOCUS INSTRUCTION what's this
- Phonological awareness (recognizing the sounds of the language such as rhymes and parts of words such as syllables, onset and rime, and individual letters) is essential to mapping sounds to letters and, then, to reading print.
- Failure to master phonological awareness may be the underlying cause of why older students and adults are non-readers or have difficulty reading in content texts.
- Difficulties with phonological awareness may be an early warning sign that the child has a reading-related learning disability.
- Difficulties acquiring phonological awareness can often be remediated with appropriate, focused, and intensive intervention instruction.
- Failure to master phonemic awareness will prevent students from reading texts of increasing complexity.
- First grade students demonstrate their understanding of spoken words, syllables, and sounds by distinguishing long from short vowel sounds in spoken single-syllable words. They are able to correctly indicate whether the vowel is long or short when the teacher says a word. Additionally, they are able to sort picture cards into long or short vowel sounds (e.g., a picture of the sun would go into the short vowel pile; a picture of cake would go into the long vowel pile).
- First grade students who understand sounds in words (i.e, phonemes) can orally produce single-syllable words by blending sounds, including consonant blends. For example, if the teacher says /l/ /i/ /s/ /t/, the student can produce the word “list”. If the teacher says /f/ /l/ /a/ /p/, the student can blend the sounds and produce the word “flap”.
- First grade students are able to isolate and pronounce the initial, medial vowel, and final sounds in spoken single syllable words. For example if the teacher says, “What is the first sound in the word “mouse”, the student is able to correctly respond /m/. If the says asks, “What is the final sound in “mouse”, the student is able to correctly respond /s/. If the teacher asks, “What vowel sound do you hear in “rain”, the student is able to correctly respond /a/
- First grade students are able to segment single-syllable words into their complete sequence of individual sounds. For example, if these students are orally given the word, “day”, students can isolate and pronounce the two sounds /d/ and /ay/. If they are orally given the word ”map”, students isolate and pronounce the sounds in the word /m/ /a/ /p or if they are orally given the word “stop”, students can isolate and pronounce the sounds /s/ /t/ /o/ /p/.
- First grade students can correctly spell CVC (short vowel) words they can decode. They use skills gained when identifying and writing letter names to accomplish this task.
- First grade students who know and can apply grade level phonics and word attack skills in decoding words have learned the following academic vocabulary terms segment, isolate, pronounce, short vowels, long vowels, beginning sound, middle sound, ending sound, blend.
SAMPLE PERFORMACE TASKS
- What are the most effective strategies/activities to use when teaching blending and segmenting of single syllable C-V-C words and CCVC and CVCC words.
- How does phonological awareness support a child’s ability to learn to read print?
- When should a teacher move from working with sounds to mapping sounds to letters.
- What affect does the ability to analyze and decode words have on a student’s vocabulary development?
- What types of instructional strategies and materials support the development of phonics and word analysis skills? Are there songs, games, read-aloud books, decodable books, and movement activities that support the teaching of blending and segmenting?
- What is the correct pronunciation of the sounds of each consonant and vowel? (See Appendix A, pages 17-18)
- What must teachers be aware of when determining an appropriate sequence for teaching phonics and word analysis?
- What resources and materials are recommended for teachers who wish to improve their knowledge of and ability to teach phonics and word analysis skills at the first grade level? (Refer to the Center On Instruction’s web resource, Building the Foundation: A Suggested Progression of Sub-skills to Achieve the Reading Standards: Foundational Skills in the Common Core State Standards at Building the Foundation and to pages 17-22 in Appendix A of the Common Core Standards document.
- How can teachers effectively assess mastery of phonics and word analysis skills? (To screen for or quickly assess various foundational reading skills, link to the online PALS: Phonological Awareness Literacy Screening provided by the Curry School of Education at the University of Virginia – PALS)
- What academic vocabulary terms should students learn as they work to meet this standard?
– Using decks of word families, children fluently decode C-V-C and CC-V-C regular and nonsense words.
Go to RF.K.2
to see skills mastered prior to this.