Determine or clarify the meaning of unknown and multiple-meaning words and phrases based on grade 1 reading and content, choosing flexibly from an array of strategies.
- Use sentence-level context as a clue to the meaning of a word or phrase.
- Use frequently occurring affixes as a clue to the meaning of a word.
- Identify frequently occurring root words (e.g., look) and their inflectional forms (e.g., looks, looked, looking).


  • root word
  • affixes
  • similar/different
  • homograph

  • base word
  • suffix
  • morphology
  • multiple-meaning word

  • inflections 
  • prefix
  • homophone
  • context 

  • Students must acquire flexible strategies for applying known word parts to new words in a variety of texts. 
  • The Students can read and write a broad repertoire of word by acquiring the ability to combine parts of words to form new ones. 
  • A solid understanding of how the English language works facilitates reading, writing, and vocabulary development in all subject areas. 
  • Reading comprehension increases when students are able to determine the most appropriate meaning of a word for a particular context.
  • First grade students are able to use various strategies to determine or clarify the meaning of unknown words.
  • First grade students are able to ask questions about a sentence (who, what, where, why, when, how) to help them use the context to determine the meaning of unfamiliar words or phrases.
  • First grade students understand that knowing other words in a sentence and their meanings may help them “figure out” the meaning of an unfamiliar word or phrase in the sentence.
  • First grade students know that authors sometimes list important words at the beginning of a selection. In order to understand these words, they look for them in the selection and also try to find their meaning if there is a glossary.
  • First grade students understand that words can have prefixes and suffixes. When faced with an unknown word that contains affixes they recognize, they look for the base word (root word) and determine its meaning and then use known affixes as clues to the meaning of the unknown word (e.g., happy, unhappy, excited, exciting).
  • First grade students understand that adding affixes to a word changes the meaning (e.g., walk, walked, walking). They are able to make new words from familiar words by adding affixes.
  • First grade students find that the use of graphic organizers (such as semantic maps, 4 square vocabulary maps) helps them understand new words, including those with affixes.
  • When presented with frequently used and familiar multiple meaning words, first graders can identify the difference in meanings and demonstrate this by correctly using the words in a sentence or phrase.
  • When first graders learn the meaning of a new word as it is used, they can, with prompting and support, produce other meanings of the word that they may be familiar with.
  • First grade students understand the concept of multiple meaning words; they are familiar with and have a working knowledge of the terms: prefix, suffix, affix, and base (or root) word.

  • How does knowledge of word parts (e.g. root words, affixes) support vocabulary development? 
  • How does the ability to hear the parts of a word (clap syllables) facilitate students’ skills in identifying root words and affixes? 
  • How do pictures and illustrations help students learn unfamiliar words?
  • What graphic organizers and activities support students in their attempts to determine or clarify meanings of unknown words?
  • What role does questioning play in helping students figure out sentences and, in the process, clarify the meaning of unfamiliar words?
  • How important are examples and non-examples in helping students learn new words?
  • What do teachers need to know about the structure of the English language in order to best support students in their language development? 
  • What strategies support students in making connections from known words to new words? 
  • What strategies support students in using context to determine word meanings?
  • What academic vocabulary must first grade students know and use or have a solid working knowledge of in order to successfully meet this standard?


    Go to L.K.4 to see skills mastered prior to this.
    Go to L.2.4 to see the progression of related skills.