Fluently multiply and divide within 100, using strategies such as the relationship between multiplication and division (e.g., knowing that 8 × 5 = 40, one knows 40 ÷ 5 = 8) or properties of operations. By the end of Grade 3, know from memory all products of two one-digit numbers.



As students become more sophisticated with their knowledge of multiplication and division, they develop fluency to solve a wide variety of multiplication and division problems.

Understanding the Standard:

  • Use of a variety of manipulatives and technologies are important. For example, the Brain Age game requires students to quickly respond to arithmetic probems. The only way to do better in the game is to have most sums, differences, products, and quotients available from memory.
  • The use of flash cards involving multiplication and division within 100 can improve fluency.

Questions to Focus Instruction:

  • Can students fluently calculate the quotient in a division problem?
  • Can students identify and use a property of relationships (not necessarily by name)?
  • Can students explain those properties in general?
  • Can students solve multiplication and division problems within 100 by memory?


Prior to: Students are able to fluently move between multiplication and division number sentences and use a variety of strategies for solving problems. Students use their knowledge of inverse relationships to solve for the missing whole number in a multiplication or division problem. Go to 2.OA.B.2  to see previous skills in this progression.

At Grade Level:
Students will fluently calculate products and quotients through 100.