Interpret products of whole numbers, e.g., interpret 5 × 7 as the total number of objects in 5 groups of 7 objects each. For example, describe a context in which a total number of objects can be expressed as 5 × 7.

TNCore Focus Standard



This standard attempts to provide an understanding rather than a rote memorization of facts. Prior to memorizing multiplication facts, students need a more developed understanding of the meaning of multiplication. This understanding comes from a variety of opportunities to see multiplication as repeated addition and to interpret multiplication as a visual array.

Understanding the Standard:

  • Students need to see the connection between repeated addition and multiplication. For instance, 4 + 4 + 4 is the same as 3 x 4.
  • Arrays are an excellent visual tool that aids in students’ abilities to see the organization of multiplication. The use of arrays allows students to justify an answer with a drawing.
  • Use of a variety of manipulatives and technologies is important as well.

Questions to Focus Instruction:

  • Are students able to express repeated addition sentence as a multiplication fact?
  • Can students take a multiplication fact and decompose it into a repeated addition sentence?
  • Can students represent a multiplication fact using a representative drawing, such as an array?


Prior to: Students are familiar with the array and can use repeated addition to find the total number of objects in an array. To view previous skills, go to 2.OA.C.4.

At Grade Level:
Students have the vocabulary for multiplication sentences and can explain the organization of a multiplication sentence.