Tell and write time to the nearest minute and measure time intervals in minutes. Solve word problems involving addition and subtraction of time intervals in minutes, e.g., by representing the problem on a number line diagram.



Telling time is an important life skill that all students should master. In the age of advanced technologies, the era of analog clocks is receding. Students should move fluidly from an analog to a digital representation of time and accurately depict the time to the nearest hour, half hour, five minutes and to the nearest minute. Further, students must be able to distinguish time in p.m. and a.m.

Understanding the Standard:

  • Students need lots of practice with telling time and in transferring their skills from an analog clock to a digital representation. The use of individual clocks with moving parts, allow for students to have practice with the concrete experience of telling time. A lesson in moving the minute hand forward in time, and not backwards, is necessary for correct depiction of time on an analog clock.
  • Relate the telling of time to everyday activities within the classroom. Integrate this skill by surveying the class on times they go to bed, times they get up, times they arrive at school in order for this skill to be more meaningful to their everyday lives. Additionally, look for opportunities throughout the day to incorporate time and the length of activities. When incorporating time into their everyday lives, teachers should point out the activities that occur in the a.m. time frame and those that occur in the p.m. time frame.
  • Relate the division of the clock as counting by fives and practice skip counting by fives through sixty.
  • Begin to make equivalent comparisons such as 24 hours in one day, 60 seconds in one minute, etc.
  • Use timers or hour-glasses to show the passage of time. Once the basic understanding of time passage has been mastered, students should use addition and subtraction to calculate the intervals in time. The use of everyday activities is an excellent resource for this concept. For instance, if lunch begins at 11:05 and ends at 11:35, how much time has passed?
  • Use technologies that allow students to match digital times to analog representations.

Questions to Focus Instruction:

  • Can students distinguish between an analog and digital clock?
  • Can students tell time to the nearest hour? Half-hour? Five minutes? Nearest minute?
  • Can students manipulate an analog clock in order to accurately depict time to the hour, half-hour, five minutes, and nearest minute?
  • What activities will provide opportunities for students to match time on an analog clock with that on a digital clock?
  • How can I make sure students understand that skip counting by fives is a skill that is important to telling time?
  • How can I incorporate the use of telling time throughout my day in order to make this skill more meaningful to students’ everyday lives?
  • Can students relate certain activities that occur in the a.m. time frame as opposed to those in the p.m. time frame?
  • Can students correctly compute the interval of time from one activity to the next?


Prior to: Students will accurately tell time to the five- minute mark as well as determine if the time is a.m. or p.m. Students will accurately make the time on an analog clock and also write that time in digital form. Students will recognize patterns in time as an introduction to the concept of elapsed time. Students will estimate the amount of time an activity might take in order to complete. Go to 2.MD.C.7 to see previous skills in this progression.

At Grade Level: Students will accurately tell time to the nearest minute. Students will calculate intervals in time represented in real-life situations. Students will readily add a.m. or p.m. to a designated time when paired with an event based on knowledge of when events occur. (i.e. Lunch 11:30 -student can add a.m. to the time knowing that p.m. would be almost midnight and people don’t eat lunch at almost midnight.)