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Measurement & Data

Solve problems involving measurement and estimation

Represent and interpret data

Geometric measurement: understand concepts of area and relate area to multiplication and to addition

Geometric measurement: recognize perimeter

Measurement is the assignment of a numerical value to an attribute of an object, such as the length of a pencil. At more sophisticated levels, measurement involves assigning a number to a characteristic of a situation, as is done by the consumer price index. Through their school experience, primarily in prekindergarten through grade 8, students should become proficient in using measurement tools, techniques, and formulas in a range of situations.

Another focus of this domain is for students to learn to formulate questions that can be answered using data and understand what is involved in gathering and using the data wisely. Young children can devise simple data-gathering plans to attempt to answer their questions. As students move through the elementary grades, they should spend more time planning the data collection and evaluating how well their methods worked in getting information about their questions. In the middle grades, students should work more with data that have been gathered by others or generated by simulations.

Third grade students will connect multiplication to the area of a rectangle. This concept was begun in second grade by counting tiles in an array and is now expanded to the more sophisticated notion of the area of a two-dimensional shape. Students compose the regions and then decompose them into their rows and columns that have the same number of “units.”

Measurement is expanded to include volume, mass, and weight. Fractions again play an important role with measurement in standard units. Teachers can have the students mark an inch, create a volume representation with their base ten manipulatives, and use a balance scale to see fractional parts for mass and weight. Telling time and solving problems with elapsed time are also experiences that help students gain more fluency with their arithmetic operations.