Tell and write time from analog and digital clocks to the nearest five minutes, using a.m. and p.m.


Click here to learn about the process used to unpack the standards and create learning targets.


Unpacking the Standard: 2.MD.C.7(1)  2.MD.C.7(2)
Student Friendly Learning Target: 2.MD.C.7(1)  2.MD.C.7(2)
Visual Representation of Learning Target: 2.MD.C.7(1)  2.MD.C.7(2)


Telling time is an important life skill that all students should master. In the age of advanced technologies, the era of analog clocks is receding. Students should move fluidly from an analog to a digital representation of time and accurately depict the time to the nearest hour, half hour, and five minutes. Further, students must be able to distinguish time in p.m. and a.m. This standard is a progression from standard 1.MD.3.

Understanding the Standard: 

  • Students need a lot of practice with telling and writing time and in trasferring their skills from an analog clock to a digital representation. The use of individual clocks with moving parts allow for students to practice with the concrete experience of telling time. A lesson in moving the minute hand forward in time, and not backwards, is necessary for correct depiction of time on an analog clock.
  • Relate the telling of time to everyday activities within the classroom. Integrate this skill by surveying the class on times they go to bed, times they get up, and times they arrive at school in order for this skill to be more meaningful to their everyday lives. Additionally, look for opportunities throughout the day to incorporate time and the length of activities. When incorporating time into their everyday lives, teachers should point out the activities that occur in the a.m. time frame and those that occur in the p.m. time frame.
  • Relate the division of the clock as counting by fives and practice skip counting by fives through sixty.
  • Begin to make equivalent comparisons such as 24 hours in one day, 60 seconds in one minute, etc.
  • Use timers or hour-glasses to show the passage of time.
  • Use technologies that allow students to match digital times to analog representations.

    Questions to Focus Instruction:

      • Can my students distinguish between an analog and digital clock?
      • Can my students tell time to the nearest hour? Half-hour? Five minutes?
      • Can my students write time to the nearest hour? Half-hour? Five minutes?
      • Can students manipulate an analog clock in order to accurately depict time to the hour, half-hour, and five minutes?
      • What activities will provide opportunities for students to match time on an analog clock with that on a digital clock?
      • How can I make sure students understand that skip counting by fives is a skill that is important to telling time?
      • How can I incorporate the use of telling time throughout my day in order to make this skill more meaningful to students’ everyday lives?
      • Can students relate certain activities that occur in the a.m. time frame as opposed to those in the p.m. time frame?


        Prior to: Students can identify an analog clock and a digital clock. When given a time to the hour or half-hour, students are able to make that time on an analog clock showing the positions of the minute and hour hand as well as write the time correctly in digital form. When shown a time on an analog clock, students can precisely name the time to the hour or half-hour. Students are able to match the time on an analog clock with the same digital representation. Children can identify whether activities or events occur in the morning or afternoon/evening as an introduction to learning about a.m. and p.m. Go to 1.MD.B.3 to see previous skills in this progression.

        At Grade Level:
        Students will accurately tell time to the five- minute mark as well as determine if the time is a.m. or p.m. Students will accurately make the time on an analog clock and also write that time in digital form. Students will recognize patterns in time as an introduction to the concept of elapsed time.

        Moving Beyond:
        Students will accurately tell time to the nearest minutes. Students will calculate intervals in time represented in real-life situations. Students will readily add a.m. or p.m. to a designated time when paired with an event based on knowledge of when events occur. (i.e. Lunch 11:30 -student can add a.m. to the time knowing that p.m. would be almost midnight and people don’t eat lunch at almost midnight). Go to 3.MD.A.1 to see the progression of related skills.