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Measurement & Data

Measure and estimate lengths in standard units


Relate addition and subtraction to length


Work with time and money


Represent and interpret data


Measurement is the assignment of a numerical value to an attribute of an object, such as the length of a pencil. At more-sophisticated levels, measurement involves assigning a number to a characteristic of a situation, as is done by the consumer price index. Through their school experience, primarily in prekindergarten through grade 8, students should become proficient in using measurement tools, techniques, and formulas in a range of situations.

Another focus of this domain is for students to learn to formulate questions that can be answered using data and understand what is involved in gathering and using the data wisely. Young children can devise simple data-gathering plans to attempt to answer their questions. As students move through the elementary grades, they should spend more time planning the data collection and evaluating how well their methods worked in getting information about their questions. In the middle grades, students should work more with data that have been gathered by others or generated by simulations.

By second grade, students are both measuring and estimating using standard units of measurement. They should now recognize that talking about a number without some type of unit attached is vague and almost meaningless. Students need to have many experiences with various types of measurements so they can build landmarks that will serve them not only in future mathematics courses, but also as they continue their studies of science. Contextual problems help students begin to make sense of addition and subtraction. Time and money concepts (that were introduced in the preceding two grades) can now be developed to the level where children can apply their mathematical thinking to a real life experience and solve problems. Students can also represent data measurements they make and collect. They can work with their data. They solve problems with it, compare their data, and formulate questions that they can use their data to answer.