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# Number & Operations in Base Ten

#### Work with numbers 11-19 to gain foundations for place value

In the early grades, students begin to understand numbers, ways of representing numbers, relationships among numbers, and number systems. In Kindergarten, students acquire knowledge that numbers up to 19 are made up of a ten and varying ones. They also learn that the tens in a number are known as being in the place value of “ten” and the ones in a number are in the place value of “one” (working with manipulatives helps them gain a better understanding of what a “ten” and a “one” are). Students should be able to represent a number in various forms (i.e. through pictures, manipulatives, numbers, and words).

Once children have developed an initial number sense for numbers up to ten, they will have a foundation for both place value and mental computations. Through the regular initial use of Five Frames and then Ten Frames, number sense can be strengthened within the context of ten. Van de Walle (1988) found that the use of “quick image” techniques such as using assorted arrangements of counters on the ten frames prompts mental images of numbers and various mental strategies for manipulating these numbers. Students begin to “see” 11 as “10 and a one”, 12 as “10 and two,” etc. Place value and base ten can also be easily integrated into counting up to the “100 days of school.”

This continuum contains Counting and Cardinality standards for K, Number and Operations and Algebraic Thinking standards K-3, Number and Operations in Base Ten standards K-3, Number and Operations – Fractions standards for grade 3..