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Number & Operations in Base Ten

Extend the counting sequence


Understand place value


Use place value understanding and properties of operations to add and subtract


In the early grades, students begin to understand numbers, ways of representing numbers, relationships among numbers, and number systems.  This domain also focuses on students learning to add and subtract numbers through their knowledge of composing and decomposing those numbers.

In the first grade, students need to continue their experiences with Ten Frames. Van de Walle (1988) found that the use of “quick image” techniques such as using assorted arrangements of counters on the ten frames prompts mental images of numbers and various mental strategies for manipulating these numbers. Students need to work with base ten manipulatives frequently. This aids in the students’ understanding of the tens place in counting and how that facilitates grouping with place-value units. Students further build upon this knowledge to recognize that place-value concepts are a convenient way to compose and decompose numbers, as well as compare numbers. This aids children as they continue to develop fluency with their addition and subtraction computations. Students should have the ability to compose and decompose numbers that are both multiples and non-multiples of ten. They also should be able to start at any number between 1 and 100 and add/subtract ten.

This continuum contains Counting and Cardinality standards for K, Number and Operations and Algebraic Thinking standards K-3, Number and Operations in Base Ten standards K-3, Number and Operations – Fractions standards for grade 3.